Phylogenies of wild and domesticated cats

Felidae phylogeny

South African and Sardinian wildcats were distinct, roughly intermediate, and in part overlapping the domestic and European wildcat distributions. A genetic assessment of domestic cats and their wild progenitors—Felis silvestris silvestris European wildcat , F. All cat breeds were found to have originated in eight different regions and then selectively bred multiple times throughout history and relocated multiple times leading to the approximately 45 modern breeds. The number of contributing populations can be estimated and, for a given number of populations, their gene frequencies and the admixture proportions for each individual are all jointly estimated. All microsatellites were polymorphic, showing 9—19 different alleles per locus average Analysis of Genetic Variation: Microsatellites We determined the individual genotypes at 12 loci in cat samples. This model assumes that there are K populations where K may be unknown , each of which is characterized by a set of allele frequencies at each locus. Domestic cats and Sardinian wildcats showed the lowest pairwise FST and RST values table 4 , which, once again, supports current hypotheses on domestication. A summary of mtDNA variation is shown in table 3.

They each show that F. However, because the sample used in this study is a subset of the full geographic distribution of domestic cats and wildcats, we are unable to make reliable estimates of genetic divergence to infer divergence times between F.

timeline of cat domestication

Therefore, these methods are more suited to exploratory data analysis than to precise statistical inference Pritchard, Stephens, and Donnelly The Sardinian wildcats belong to the F. The allele frequency distributions varied across loci, and some of them i.

In this way, the sampled population is subdivided into a number of different subpopulations that effectively cluster the individuals.

Figure 1: Felidae family phylogentic tree, Lions, tigers, jaguars and leopards the only roaring species are located at the top of the tree.

How did cats evolve

This is the reason for the massive jump in the number of breeds in such a short number of years. Results of this analysis are reported in table 5. It also showed that this group of variations are monophyletic, meaning they share a common ancestor not shared by other groups. Additional information was obtained by a minimum-spanning network of the mtDNA haplotypes fig. Usually, microsatellites are variable enough to allow for the unequivocal identification of all the sampled individuals in a population. Phylogenetic trees were generated based on mitochondrial DNA analysis. Twelve microsatellites listed in table 2 originally isolated in the domestic cat Menotti-Raymond and O'Brien ; Menotti-Raymond et al. The allele frequency distributions varied across loci, and some of them i. However, score distributions were widespread and, without using prior population information, it would be difficult to use PCA to identify hybrids and assign the outlier individuals to the populations. Deviations from HWE due to heterozygote deficit in European wildcats may indicate local inbreeding and the presence of geographical population structuring in Italy Wahlund effect; Hartl and Clark ; pp. Speciation in Felis was recent, as suggested by morphological, biochemical, and molecular studies Ragni and Randi ; Randi and Ragni ; Masuda et al.

Archaeological remains and anthropological clues suggest that, unlike species domesticated for agriculture e. Introduction Closely related African wildcats, European wildcats, and domestic cats, widely distributed in Europe, Asia, and Africa Nowell and Jacksonform a distinct clade within Felis, the domestic cat lineage Masuda et al.

Nowadays, domestic cats are distributed worldwide and virtually sympatric with European and African wildcats almost everywhere.

domestic cat ancestor

The average number of pairwise allelic differences and average HO and HE were not significantly different among the three groups.

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The Near Eastern Origin of Cat Domestication