Thus it was also the first rack railway. The world's first electric tram line, Gross-Lichterfelde Tramwayopened in Lichterfelde near BerlinGermany, in In Cort also patented the rolling processwhich was 15 times faster at consolidating and shaping iron than hammering.
The next important development in iron production was hot blast developed by James Beaumont Neilson patentedwhich considerably reduced the amount of coke fuel or charcoal needed to produce pig iron.
Such an operation was illustrated in Germany in by Georgius Agricola in his work De re metallica. The line originally used wooden rails and a hemp haulage rope and was operated by human or animal power, through a treadwheel.
Stephenson played a pivotal role in the development and widespread adoption of the steam locomotive. The miners called the wagons Hunde "dogs" from the noise they made on the tracks. The transmission system employed a large flywheel to even out the action of the piston rod.
Steel rails lasted several times longer than iron. It hauled a load of six tons at four miles per hour 6 kilometers per hour for a distance of one and a half miles 2.
The construction of many of these lines has resulted in the dramatic decline of short haul flights and automotive traffic between connected cities, such as the London—Paris—Brussels corridor, Madrid—Barcelona, Milan—Rome—Naples, as well as many other major lines. This was a large stationary enginepowering cotton mills and a variety of machinery; the state of boiler technology necessitated the use of low pressure steam acting upon a vacuum in the cylinder, which required a separate condenser and an air pump.